EDUCATION

Technology has drastically evolved over the years to become one of the most used tools in today’s world of education. In the 21st century, technology has changed the ways in which we communicate and go about our lives. Very few educators would disagree with the notion that technology has dramatically changed the teaching and learning process.

Some of the  Examples Of The Evolution Of Classroom Technology

In 1890 we used the chalkboard and board to learn.

1925: Film

1957: B.F. Skinner Teaching Machine

1960: Overhead Projector

1970: Educational Programming

1972: Scantrons

1977: Desktop PCs

1996: The Internet

1999: Interactive Whiteboards

2004: YouTube

2005: “Clickers”

2007: Tablets

2013: Mobile Apps

Nowadays we used a different application for home learning. we can also find different online courses and E-learning center. iPads are such adaptable and powerful tools for teaching and learning.  There are so many applications which we find on the internet but sometimes We still use libraries for  our research and learning is now more web-based.  What used to take hours to the library to find, we find instantaneously.  As a result, we need to sort through huge amounts of information efficiently.

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EVOLUTION OF E-COMMERCE

In 1991, the World Wide Web was created. Although the Internet is now a major part of most of our daily lives, it’s important to recognize that it’s still a relatively new development compared to the overall retail industry.

Then, in 1994, Pizza Hut officially became the first major business to offer online purchasing. One year later, eBay and Amazon were founded. Many people view this is as the start of e-commerce as we know it today.

By 1996, online sales surpassed 1 billion This is an incredible jump given that the Internet was still only 5 years old – and it certainly forecasted the industry’s later growth. Even so, no one could’ve predicted the 25 billion in sales that took place in 2000.

By the next year, e-commerce solidified its place in the retail industry with 70% of Internet users making an online purchase during the holiday season. In 2005, the term “Cyber Monday” was coined, and the Monday after Thanksgiving officially became the biggest online shopping day of the year.

HEALTH AND TECHNOLOGY

In today’s world, technology plays an important role in every industry as well as in our personal lives. Out of all of the industries that technology plays a crucial role in, healthcare is definitely one of the most important. This merger is responsible for improving and saving countless lives all around the world.

Medical technology is a broad field where innovation plays a crucial role in sustaining health. Areas like biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, information technology, the development of medical devices and equipment, and more have all made significant contributions to improving the health of people all around the world.

From “small” innovations like bandages and ankle braces to larger, more complex technologies like MRI machines, artificial organs, and robotic prosthetic limbs, technology has undoubtedly made an incredible impact on medicine.

Technology is considered to be the driving force behind improvements in health care and, when you look at the rate of change and recent innovations, many find it hard not to agree with that observation.

The fact that nurses and doctors who are working on the frontline are now routinely using hand-held computers to record important real-time patient data and then sharing it instantly within their updated medical history is an excellent illustration of the benefits of health IT.

Being able to accumulate lab results, records of vital signs and other critical patient data into one centralized area has transformed the level of care and efficiency a patient can expect to receive when they enter the healthcare system.

An increased level of efficiency in data collection means that a vast online resource of patient history is available to scientists, who are finding new ways to study trends and make medical breakthroughs at a faster rate.

EVOLUTION OF CLICK

The mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1964 and consisted of a wooden shell, circuit board and two metal wheels that came into contact with the surface it was being used on.

On most computers, the user can move the mouse to move the cursor in the same direction.To choose something that is on the screen, the user can move the cursor to it and “click” the left mouse button. The right mouse button is used to open menus that are different depending on where the cursor is. The other mouse buttons can do different things, depending on the software Most mice have two buttons to click.

An optical mouse was developed in around 1980, eliminating the ball which often became dirty from rolling around the desktop, negatively affecting its operation. In 1988,  was issued for an optical mouse invented by Lisa M. Williams and Robert S. Cherry, which was to be sold commercially with Xerox products, such as the Xerox STAR.

Today the optical mouse has completely replaced the ball mouse, being supplied as standard with all new computer. Because of advanced technology, the mouse is being replaced with the touch sensor. Nowadays, we can find touch sensor in every laptop and desktop.A touchpad is an area that imitates (does the same) functions of a computer mouse. There is no need of an external device like a mouse. The user just runs over the small sensitive pad with one or more fingers.

 

evolution of floppy disk

FLOPPY DISK:

A floppy disk is a disk storage medium composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium encased in a rectangular plastic carrier. It is the earliest portable devices.The first floppy disk was introduced in 1971 as an 8 inch which was manufactured by IBM. the 8-inch floppy disk has the only capacity to store up to 80 KB.

Later on, after 6 years, Sony introduces 3.5-inch floppy disk in 1982 with 1.44 MB storage of capacity.The 3.5-inch floppy was more durable and came with a sliding metal cover to protect the magnetic media from dust.

COMPACT DISC (CD):

The compact disc is an optical storage device which was first introduced in 1982, The first compact disc came with 650MB of storage capacity, a few years later a 700MB compact disc was introduced. Compact disks are currently available in two formats.

DIGITAL VERSATILE DISC(DVD):

DVD  was first invented and developed by Sony, Toshiba, Panasonic, and Phillips. Like compact disks, DVD is also an optical storage device. DVDs are available in four different data storage sizes, which are listed below:

Single-layer, single-sided     4.7GB

Single-layer, double-sided   9.4GB

Dual-layer, single-sided       8.5GB

Dual-layer, double-sided     17GB

The first Flash Drive was manufactured and distributed in Europe under the “disc” brand name. It was only available in four sizes; 8MB, 16MB, 32MB, and 64MB.

SECURE DIGITAL MEMORY(SD CARD):

Secure Digital Standard memory card was also introduced in 1999, it replaced the Multi-Media Card (MMC). SD memory cards come in 3 sizes or form factors which are:

  1. Original or standard size
  2. Mini Size
  3. Micro size

SD card storage capacity ranges from a minimum of 16MB to a maximum of 2TB storage capacity.

 

evolution of Camera

Among various other stuff that we own and use a lot, cameras definitely play an important role in our daily life. We freeze great moments from our life in the form of photographs using this little tool, and for emotional beings such as us, this means a lot.
However, it took a great deal of time to make the camera that we use today, be it as a small module on our smartphones or compact point and shoot cameras or the mighty DSLRs.

Pinhole camera was the first camera which was invented by Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) in 1500s. pinhole camera was the simple camera without lens but with the tiny aperture but this camera was not success in the photography as the image is seen upside down.

Then daguerreotype was the first commercially successful photographic process (1839-1860) in the history of photography. Named after the inventor, Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, each daguerreotype is a unique image on a silvered copper plate.

 

 

Evolution of G (wireless network)

Technology from manufacturers is advancing at a stunning rate and the wireless networking is tying our gadgets together with the services we demand. In just the past 10 years, we have seen an astonishing evolution of wireless service we use every day.

First generation(1G):

The first generation service (1G) to today’s truly broadband-ready LTE networks (now accepted as 4G), the wireless industry is on a path that promises some great innovation in our future.It introduces mobile technologies such as Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Push to Talk (PTT). It has low capacity, unreliable handoff, poor voice links, and no security at all since voice calls were played back in radio towers, making these calls susceptible to unwanted eavesdropping by third parties.

Second generation(2G):

2G refers to the second generation based on GSM and was emerged in late 1980s. It uses digital signals for voice transmission. Main focus of this technology was on digital signals and provides services to deliver text and picture message at low speed (in kbps). It use the bandwidth of 30 to 200 KHz. Next to 2G, 2.5G system uses packet switched and circuit switched domain and provide data rate up to 144 kbps. e.g. GPRS, CDMA and EDGE. 

Third generation(3G):

3G is based on GSM and was launched in 2000. The aim of this technology was to offer high speed data. The original technology was improved to allow data up to 14 Mbps and more using packet switching. It uses Wide Band Wireless Network with which clarity is increased. It also offers data services, access to television/video, new services like Global Roaming. It operates at a range of 2100MHz and has a bandwidth of 15-20MHz used for High-speed internet service, video chatting.

fourth generation(4G):

4G offers a downloading speed of 100Mbps. 4G provides same feature as 3G and additional services like Multi-Media Newspapers, to watch T.V programs with more clarity and send Data much faster than previous generations [3]. LTE (Long Term Evolution) is considered as 4G technology. 4G is being developed to accommodate the QOS and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal services like voice and data, and other services that utilize bandwidth.

evolution of Windows

Microsoft’s Windows operating system was first introduced in 1985. Windows has seen eight major versions since its first release in 1985. Here’s a brief look at the history of Windows:

Windows 1:

The origin of window 1 was released in November 1985 and it runs as a graphical, 16-bit multi-tasking shell on top of an existing MS-DOS installation. It provides an environment which can run graphical programs designed for windows, as well as existing MS-DOS software.It was notable because it relied heavily on use of a mouse before the mouse was a common computer input device.

To help users become familiar with this odd input system, Microsoft included a game, Reverse (visible in the screenshot) that relied on mouse control, not the keyboard, to get people used to moving the mouse around and clicking onscreen elements.

Windows 3.1:

The origin of window 3.1 was released on 1992. Windows 3 was the first version to see more widespread success and be considered a challenger to Apple’s Macintosh and the Commodore Amiga graphical user interfaces, coming pre-installed on computers from PC-compatible manufacturers including Zenith Data System

Windows 3 introduced the ability to run MS-DOS programmer in windows, which brought multitasking to legacy programmer, and supported 256 colors bringing a more modern, colorful look to the interface.

Windows 95:

Windows 95 arrived in August 1995 and with it brought the first ever Start button and Start menu.It also introduced the concept of “plug and play” – connect a peripheral and the operating system  which finds the appropriate drivers for it and makes it work.

Windows 95 also introduced a 32-bit environment, the task bar and focused on multitasking. MS-DOS still played an important role for Windows 95, which required it to run some programmed and elements.

windows XP:

Windows XP was released in October 2001 and brought Microsoft’s enterprise line and consumer line of operating systems.Windows XP was the longest running Microsoft operating system, seeing three major updates and support until 13 years  from its original release date. Windows XP was still used on an estimated 430m PCs when it was discontinued.

The Start menu and task bar got a visual overhaul, bringing the familiar green Start button, blue task bar and vista wallpaper, along with various shadow and other visual effects.

Windows vista:

Windows Vista was originated at January 2007. Vista updated the look and feel of Windows with more focus on transparent elements, search and security. Its development, under the code-name “Longhorn”, was troubled, with ambitious elements abandoned in order to get it into production.

Vista also included speech recognition, Windows DVD Maker and Photo Gallery, as well as being the first Windows to be distributed on DVD. Later a version of Windows Vista without Windows Media Player was created in response to anti-trust investigations.

Windows 7: 

It was first released in October 2009. It was intended to fix all the problems and criticism faced by Vista, with slight tweaks to its appearance and a concentration on user-friendly features and less “dialogue box overload”.

It was faster, more stable and easier to use, becoming the operating system most users and business would upgrade to from Windows XP, forgoing Vista entirely.Handwriting recognition debuted in 7, as did the ability to “snap” windows to the tops or sides of the screen, allowing faster more automatic window re sizing.

Windows 8:

Windows 8 was faster than previous versions of Windows and included support for the new, much faster USB 3.0 devices. The Windows Store, which offers universal Windows apps that run in a full-screen mode only, was introduced. Programs could still be installed from third-parties like other iterations of Windows, but they could only access the traditional desktop interface of Windows.

Windows 8 introduced in October 2013, Windows 8.1 marked a shift towards yearly software updates from Microsoft and included the first step in Microsoft’s U-turn around its new visual interface.

Windows 8.1 re-introduced the Start button, which brought up the Start screen from the desktop view of Windows 8.1. Users could also choose to boot directly into the desktop of Windows 8.1, which was more suitable for those using a desktop computer with a mouse and keyboard than the touch-focused Start screen.

Windows 10:

Announced on 30 September 2014, Windows 10 has only been released as a test version for keen users to try. The “technical preview” is very much still a work in progress.

Windows 10 represents another step in Microsoft’s U-turn, bringing back the Start menu and more balance to traditional desktop computer users.

Some interesting features include the ability to switch between a keyboard and mouse mode and a tablet mode, for those computers like the Surface Pro 3 with a detachable keyboard.

 

 

Evolution of computer/laptop

Charles Babbage, was the first person to come up with the concept of a programmable computer by conceptualizing the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century in the history of computers.

The first computer made by Charles Babbage,the father of computer,was almost a century ahead of its time. Since, it was a mechanical computer, all the parts for his machine had to be made by hand. During those days, making mechanical parts for the computer was really a difficult problem.

After the mechanical computers, it was the time for the analog computers to rule.The first modern analog computer was the  tide-predicting machine, invented by Sir William Thomson in 1872. These analogical computers used the wheel-and-disc mechanisms for the predictions.However, analog computers lacked the ability to be programmed and the accuracy as well.

After the analog computer, again it was the time for the digital computer at 1950s ,but analog computers still remained in use in some specialized applications such as education (control systems), navigational systems in the ship and aircraft (slide rule).The principle of the modern digital computer was first described by mathematician and pioneering computer scientist Alan Turing. Later in 1938, the United States Navy developed an electro-mechanical analog computer small enough to use aboard a submarine named Torpedo Data Computer.

The electromechanical computers used electrical switches to move the mechanical relays to do the computations. However, they have a slow operating speed. Later, these electromechanical computers were replaced with all-electric computers. These all-electric computers used vacuum tubes. The Z2, created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in 1939, was one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical relay computer. In 1941, the world’s first working and fully automatic digital and electromechanical programmable computer is produce by Zuse.
Now a day, Our Generation of computer is more popular and comfortable to used. Desktop monitors were replaced by LCD and then by Laptops. Keyboards were replaced by touch panels and even laptops got smaller and slim. After that tablet were also invented. Hardware features of the laptops in the 2000s got ported over to the mobile phones and now there is a constant war in between smartphones (Newer version of mobile phones) and personal computers.

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